Ideal price of Futures contract = Spot price + Cost of carry – Inflows
As discussed earlier, inflows may be in the form of dividend (in case of equity) and interest (in case of debt). However, sometimes inflows may also be situational or intangibles.
Intangible inflows are essentially values perceived by the market participants just by holding the asset. These values may be in the form of just convenience derived from holding the asset or perceived mental comfort.
For instance, in case of natural disaster like flood in a particular region, or war, people start storing essential commodities like grains, vegetables and energy products (heating oil) etc. This causes a spike in the spot market and increases the price of the underlying asset for immediate delivery. So, holding the asset/commodity immediately, is better, than availing the asset at some time in the future, or by holding futures contract. This is termed as convenience yield.